Music of Cuba - Wikipedia
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While many contradanzas were written for dance, from the mid-century several were written as light-classical parlor pieces for piano.
The first distinguished composer in this style was Manuel Saumell —who is sometimes accordingly hailed as the father of Cuban creole musical development. According to Helio Orovio, "After Saumell's visionary work, all that was left to do was to develop his innovations, all of which profoundly influenced the history of Cuban nationalist musical movements. Cervantes was called by Aaron Copland a "Cuban Chopin " because of his Chopinesque piano compositions.
Cervantes' reputation today rests almost solely upon his famous forty-one Danzas Cubanas, which Carpentier said, " Cervantes' never-finished opera, Maledetto, is forgotten. Non-Cubans sometimes called Cuban contradanzas "habaneras. This was later lengthened and staged under the title Seila.
His numerous works spanned all genres. Gaspar Villate — produced abundant and wide-ranging work, all centered on opera. He learned to play sixteen instruments, and lived, variously, in Cuba, Latin America and Paris. His most famous work is La bella cubana, a habanera.
Gottschalk During the middle years of the 19th century, a young American musician came to Havana: Louis Moreau Gottschalk —whose father was a Jewish businessman from London, and his mother a white creole of French Catholic background. He was a piano prodigy who had listened to the music and seen the dancing in Congo SquareNew Orleans from childhood.
His period in Cuba lasted from towith visits to Puerto Rico and Martinique squeezed in. He composed many creolized pieces, such as the habanera Bamboula, Op. These numbers made use of typical Cuban rhythmic patterns. The work used about musicians and a choir of singers plus a tumba francesa group from Santiago de Cuba.
He produced another huge concert the following year, with new material. These shows probably dwarfed anything seen in the island before or since, and no doubt were unforgettable for those who attended.
There he met Caturla, at sixteen a second violin. Roldan's compositions included Overture on Cuban themesand two ballets: La Rebambaramba and El milagro de Anaquille There followed a series of Ritmicas and Poema negra and Tres toques march, rites, dance His last composition was two Piezas infantiles for piano Roldan died young, at 38, of a disfiguring facial cancer he had been an inveterate smoker.
His Tres danzas cubanas for symphony orchestra was first performed in Spain in Bembe was premiered in Havana the same year. His Obertura cubana won first prize in a national contest in Caturla was murdered at 34 by a young gambler. In he was one of the founders of the National Symphony Orchestra, which he conducted.
In he was appointed Director of the Havana School of Music. As a composer he specialized in the zarzuelaa musical theatre form, very popular up to World War II. In he co-founded a bufo company comic theatre at the Marti Theatre in Havana. It was premiered in He founded various organizations and wrote frequently on musical topics.
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He was a prolific composer of songs and music for stage and film. His works consisted of zarzuelaAfro-Cuban and Cuban rhythms, suites and many songs that became Latin standards. During its existence from tothe group organized numerous concerts at the Havana Lyceum in order to present their avant-garde compositions to the general public and fostered within its members the development of many future conductors, art critics, performers and professors.
From then on most musicians have kept their careers on one side of the invisible line or the other.
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After the Cuban Revolution ina new crop of classical musicians came onto the scene. The most important of these is guitarist Leo Brouwerwho made significant innovations in classical guitar, and is currently the director of the Havana Symphonic Orchestra. His directorship in the early s of the Cuban Institute of Instrumental and Cinematographic Arts ICAIC was instrumental in the formation and consolidation of the nueva trova movement.
Other important composers from the early post-revolution period that began in were: Right row, top to bottom: Closely following the early post-revolution generation, a group of young composers started to attract the attention of the public that attended classical music concerts.
Most of them received a solid musical education provided by the official arts school system created by the Cuban government and graduated from the Instituto Superior de Arte ISA.
All of them have emigrated and currently live and work in other countries. Electroacoustic music in Cuba[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message Juan Blanco was the first Cuban composer to create an electroacoustic piece in This first composition, titled "Musica Para Danza", was produced with just an oscillator and three common tape recorders.
As a result of the enormous scarcity generated by the Cuban Revolution since its origins inaccess to the necessary technological resources to produce electroacoustic music was always very limited for anyone interested. For this reason, it was not until that another Cuban composer, Sergio Barrosodedicated himself to the creation of electroacoustic musical compositions. In this capacity, he created electroacoustic music for all the audiovisual materials produced by ICAP.
After nine years working without restitution, Blanco finally obtained financing to set up an Electroacoustic Studio to be used for his work. He was appointed as Director of the Studio, but under the condition that he should be the only one to use the facility.
After a few months, and without asking for permission, he opened the Electroacoustic Studio to all composers interested in working with electroacoustic technology, thus creating the ICAP Electroacoustsic Music Workshop TIMEwhere he himself provided training to all participants.
Classical Guitar in Cuba From the 16th to the 19th century[ edit ] The guitar as it is known today or in one of its historical versions has been present in Cuba since the discovery of the island by Spain.
In he performed at a much acclaimed concert in Havana, after returning from Spain. Flamenco melodies are characterized by a descending tendency, as opposed to, for example, a typical opera ariathey usually go from the higher pitches to the lower ones, and from forte to pianoas was usual in ancient Greek scales.
Skips of a third or a fourth are rarer. However, in fandangos and fandango-derived styles, fourths and sixths can often be found, especially at the beginning of each line of verse.
According to Rossy, this is proof of the more recent creation of this type of songs, influenced by Castilian jota. It also refers to the rhythmic cycle, or layout, of a palo.
The guitarist uses techniques like strumming rasgueado or tapping the soundboard golpe. Changes of chords emphasize the most important downbeats.
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Flamenco uses three basic counts or measures: Binary, Ternary and a form of a twelve-beat cycle that is unique to flamenco. Rhythms in 2 4. These metres are used in forms like tangostientosgypsy rumbazambra and tanguillos. Rhythms in 3 4. These are typical of fandangos and sevillanassuggesting their origin as non-Roma styles, since the 3 4 and 4 4 measures are not common in ethnic Roma music.
The beat cycle is the most common in flamenco, differentiated by the accentuation of the beats in different palos. The accents do not correspond to the classic concept of the downbeat.
There are three types of beat rhythms, which vary in their layouts, or use of accentuations: Both palos start with the strong accent on For practical reasons, when transferring flamenco guitar music to sheet music, this rhythm is written as a regular 3 4. Cante flamenco Flamenco performance by the La Primavera group The origins, history and importance of the cante is covered in the main Wikipedia entry for the cante flamenco. Baile dance [ edit ] El baile flamenco is known for its emotional intensity, proud carriage, expressive use of the arms and rhythmic stamping of the feet often confused[ citation needed ] with tap dance or Irish dance but with a completely different technique.
As with any dance form, many different styles of flamenco have developed. In the twentieth century, flamenco danced informally at gitano Roma celebrations in Spain was considered the most "authentic" form of flamenco. There is less virtuoso technique in gitano flamenco, but the music and steps are fundamentally the same. The arms are noticeably different from classical flamenco, curving around the head and body rather than extending, often with a bent elbow.
In this style, the dance is always performed solo, and is improvised rather than choreographed. Some purists frown on castanets even though they can be seen in many early 20th century photos of flamenco dancers. It is danced largely in a proud and upright way.