Timeline of women's legal rights (other than voting) - Wikipedia
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Some of the Law of Moses concerning women was as such: In the Mosaic lawfor monetary matters, women's and men's rights were almost exactly equal. A woman was entitled to her own private property, including land, livestock, slaves, and servants.
A woman had the right to inherit whatever anyone bequeathed to her as a death gift, and in the absence of sons would inherit everything. A woman could likewise bequeath her belongings to others as a death gift. Upon dying intestate, a woman's property would be inherited by her children if she had them, her husband if she was married, or her father if she were single.
A woman could sue in court and did not need a male to represent her. In some situations, women actually had more rights than men. For example, captive women had to be ransomed prior to any male captives.
Even though sons inherited property, they had a responsibility to support their mother and sisters from the estate, and had to ensure that both mother and sisters were taken care of prior to their being able to benefit from the inheritance, and if that wiped out the estate, the boys had to supplement their income from elsewhere.
When it came to specific religious or sacramental activities, women had fewer opportunities or privileges than men. For example, in monetary or capital cases women could not serve as witnesses. A woman could not serve as a kohen in the Temple.
A woman could not serve as queen regnant, the monarch had to be male. A divorce could only be granted by the husband, upon which time she would receive the Ketubah and the return of significant portions of her dowry. The vow of an unmarried girl between the ages of 12 years and 12 years and six months might be nullified by her father and the vow of a wife that affected marital obligations may be annulled by her husband; the guilt or innocence of a wife accused of adultery might be tested through the Sotah process, although this only was successful if the husband was innocent of adultery, and daughters could inherit only in the absence of sons.
A free-born woman may not be accompanied by more than one female slave, unless she is drunk; she may not leave the city during the night, unless she is planning to commit adultery; she may not wear gold jewelry or a garment with a purple border, unless she is a courtesan.
The code dictates higher fines for adultery committed within the household of the female's father, husband or brother, as opposed to another location. Fines also depend on whether the woman has previously committed adultery. The fines are levied against the male involved in the adultery, not the female. The code does not provide for the punishment of the female.
Divorced women are entitled to any property that they brought to the marriage and half of the joint income if derived from her property. The code also provides for a portion of the household property. The code stipulates that any children conceived before the divorce but born after the divorce fall under the custody of the father.
If the father does not accept the child, it reverts to the mother. Although the husband manages the majority of the family property, the wife's property is still delineated. If the wife dies, the husband becomes the trustee to her property and may take no action on it without the consent of her children. In the case of remarriage, the first wife's property immediately comes into her children's possession. If the wife dies childless, her property reverts to her blood relatives.
If the husband dies with children, the property is held in trust by the wife for the children. If the children are of age upon their father's death, the property is divided between the children, with males receiving all of the land. If the husband dies without any children, the wife is compelled to remarry. Adopted children receive all the inheritance rights of natural children and are considered legitimate heirs in all cases, but women are not allowed to adopt children. The Twelve Tables has three sections that pertain to women and concern estates and guardianship, ownership and possession, and religion, which give a basic understanding as to the legal rights of women.
Table V Estates and Guardianship: Women were considered to be a form of guardianship similar to that of minors,  and sections on ownership and possession give off the impression that women were considered to be akin to a piece of real estate or property due to the use of terms such as "ownership" and "possession".
The Lex Oppia was established; it forbade any woman to possess more than half an ounce of gold, to wear a multi-colored garment particularly those trimmed in purpleor to ride in an animal-drawn vehicle in the city or any town or within a mile thereof, except in the case of public religious festivals. The Manusmriti legal text offers an internally inconsistent and conflicting perspective on women's rights. For example, verses 9.
These include those she received at her marriage, or as gift when she eloped or when she was taken away, or as token of love before marriage, or as gifts from her biological family, or as received from her husband subsequent to marriage, and also from inheritance from deceased relatives. The Lex Oppia was repealed. To fund the ongoing war, the triumvirs had resorted to selling the property of wealthy citizens killed by proscription ; however, this source of revenue did not prove to be lucrative enough, and the triumvirs voted to place a tax on Rome's most wealthy women.
Later that year, Hortensia delivered a speech against the tax, and the next day, the triumvirs reduced the number of women subject to the tax toand instead, compensated for the loss of revenue by forcing male property-owners to lend money to the state and contribute to war expenses.
Women, like men, were Brehons. This left the judgment up to God and avoided violating the proscription against killing a woman.
Much of it repeated traditional Irish laws. Although Irish society under the Brehon Laws was male-dominated, women had greater freedom, independence and rights to property than in other European societies of the time. Men and women held their property separately. The marriage laws were very complex.
For example, there were scores of ways of combining households and properties and then dividing the property and its increase when disputes arose. A husband was legally permitted to hit his wife to "correct" her, but if the blow left a mark she was entitled to the equivalent of her bride-price in compensation and could, if she wished, divorce him.
Property of a household could not be disposed of without the consent of both spouses. Justin I repealed a law that effectively prohibited a member of the senatorial class from marrying women from a lower class of society, including the theatre, which was considered scandalous at the time.
From the Sui dynasty onwards in Imperial China, women could not hold property directly and, for land to stay in the same family, it had to pass between male heirs following the rule of primogeniture.
Citing Biblical injunctions particularly Exodus The only consequence that the rapist faced was to pay a fine to the father of the woman that he raped. A 17th-century law in Massachusetts announced that women would be subjected to the same treatment as witches if they lured men into marriage via the use of high-heeled shoes. Law in Norway which, following the Danish rules of that time, defined unmarried women as minor.
Gender segregation is banned. Stoics of the Imperial era such as Seneca and Musonius Rufus developed theories of just relationships. While not advocating equality in society or under the law, they held that nature gives men and women equal capacity for virtue and equal obligations to act virtuously, and that therefore men and women had an equal need for philosophical education.
The daughters of senators and knights seem to have regularly received a primary education for ages 7 to Girls from a modest background might be schooled in order to help with the family business or to acquire literacy skills that enabled them to work as scribes and secretaries.
Her influence put her into conflict with the bishop of AlexandriaCyrilwho may have been implicated in her violent death in the year at the hands of a Christian mob. But the traditional restriction of women in the public life as well as the hostility against independent women still continued. The church also supported the political power of those who were friendly toward the clergy.
The appointment of mothers and grandmothers as tutors was sanctioned by Justinian. The restrictions on the marriage of senators and other men of high rank with women of low rank were extended by Constantinebut it was almost entirely removed by Justinian. Second marriages were discouraged, especially by making it legal to impose a condition that a widow's right to property should cease on remarriage, and the Leonine Constitutions at the end of the 9th century made third marriages punishable.
The same constitutions made the benediction of a priest a necessary part of the ceremony of marriage. The image shows an X-ray of two bound feet. Women in ancient and imperial China and Women in China Women throughout historical and ancient China were considered inferior and had subordinate legal status based on the Confucian law.
Women could not inherit businesses or wealth  and men had to adopt a son for such financial purposes. A wife could be ousted if she failed to birth a son, committed adultery, disobeyed her parents-in-law, spoke excessively, stole, was given to bouts of jealousy, or suffered from an incurable or loathsome disease or disorder.
Inthe Chinese government ordered the cessation of foot-binding.
Foot-binding involved alteration of the bone structure so that the feet were only about 4 inches long. The bound feet caused difficulty of movement, thus greatly limiting the activities of women. Due to the social custom that men and women should not be near each other, the women of China were reluctant to be treated by male doctors of Western Medicine. This resulted in a tremendous need for female doctors of Western Medicine in China.
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Thus, female medical missionary Dr. Hackett — of Indiana, USA. The College was aimed at the spreading of Christianity and modern medicine and the elevation of Chinese women's social status.
These women were known as Mui Tsai. This outlawed marriage by proxy and made marriage legal so long as both partners consent. The New Marriage Law raised the legal age of marriage to 20 for men and 18 for women.
This was an essential part of countryside land reform as women could no longer legally be sold to landlords. The official slogan was "Men and women are equal; everyone is worth his or her salt". Women in the Bible Both before and during biblical times, the roles of women in society were severely restricted. If he does not provide her with these three things, she is to go free, without any payment of money" Exodus Early reforms under IslamWomen in IslamIslamic feminismand Sex segregation and Islam The Qur'anrevealed to Muhammad over the course of 23 years, provided guidance to the Islamic community and modified existing customs in Arab society.
By providing that the wife, not her family, would receive a dowry from the husband, which she could administer as her personal property, the Qur'an made women a legal party to the marriage contract.
It was belief based on St. Paul, that the pain of childbirth was a punishment for this deed that led mankind to be banished from the Garden of Eden. That was the core purpose set out both culturally and religiously across Medieval Europe. Royal women's activities in the Middle Ages In overall Europe during the Middle Ages, women were inferior to that of a man in legal status.
In the legal system, women were regarded as the properties of men so any threat or injury to them was in the duty of their male guardians. Sometimes regardless of expectation, women did participate and attend court cases and court meetings. But women could not act as justices in courts, be attorneys, they could not be members of a jury and they could not accuse another person of a felony unless it's the murder of her husband. The Swedish law protected women from the authority of their husbands by transferring the authority to their male relatives.
Timeline of women's legal rights (other than voting)
In Swedish law, women would also only get half that of her brother in inheritance. Medieval marriages among the elites were arranged in a way that would meet the interests of the family as a whole.
The Wergild of woman was double that of a man with same status in the Aleman and Bavarian legal codes. Certain areas with Visgothic inheritance laws until the 7th century were favorable to women while all the other laws were not.