Radiocarbon dating - Wikipedia
Carbon, (14C), or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons. Its presence in organic materials is the basis of the radiocarbon dating . 14 6C + p. The highest rate of carbon production takes place at altitudes of 9 to 15 km (30, to 49, ft) and at high. He had produced 14C. It was in atmospheric CO2 by Libby in For groundwater, this means that 14C dating can be applied to aquifers that contain in the production rate which result in an offset between calendar and 14C ages of. Carbon is produced in the upper atmosphere through the bombardment of First, one must assume that the decay rate of Carbon has remained constant.
Recent, that is, for an evolutionist. Carbon is a radioactive isotope of Carbon. As they say on Star Trek, we are all carbon based units. Then, in another 5, years, a second decay period would occur, leaving one quarter of a pound. The process would continue, halving the amount left every 5, years until, theoretically, nothing remained of the original pound. This bombardment causes a nuclear reaction to take place. The Carbon produced by this process is then converted into carbon dioxide, just as normal Carbon becomes carbon dioxide.
The Carbon Dioxide is then utilized by plants during their normal metabolism. Animals and humans who eat these plants take the Carbon into their systems just as they would Carbon Dioxide. After death, the Carbon would decay and the ratio of the two isotopes would change. Evolutionists then claim to determine the amount of time since the death of the organism by measuring the current ratio. The lower the amount of Carbon, the longer it has been since death occurred.
The theoretical limit of the usefulness of Carbon dating would only be 50, years. This would be the amount of time it would take for nine half-lives, and after that there would not be enough left to measure accurately. There is no instrument on earth that can detect Carbon in a specimen that is supposedly older than 18 half-lives.
This amounts to a calculated age ofyears. There are, however, many false assumptions that must be made in order to derive Carbon dates and the knowledge of these false assumptions demonstrates the uselessness in this other-wise supposedly useful method.
First, one must assume that the decay rate of Carbon has remained constant and not varied over the years. This is an unwarranted assumption. There is ample evidence to prove that quite the opposite is true. Experiments done with the radioactive isotopes of Uranium and Iron have shown that rates not only do vary, but can, in fact, be altered by changing the environment surrounding the samples. Second, there is the assumption that the formation of Carbon has been constant throughout the years.
This, too, is a totally unwarranted view for two reasons. The Industrial Revolution caused a significant increase in the amount of Carbon in the atmosphere through the burning of coal. In addition, the initiation of atomic bomb testing on July 16,and the subsequent above ground testing between andcaused a rise in neutrons which in turn increased Carbon concentrations around the world.
In a similar way, solar cosmic radiation fluctuates and would cause a fluctuation in the amount Carbon being produced at any one time. Volcanoes produce large amounts of Carbon Dioxide which do not contain initial amounts of Carbon Third, the assumption is made that the concentrations of Carbon and Carbon have remained constant in the atmosphere. Besides the aforementioned items, the amount of cosmic radiation in the past, and in particular the amount reaching the atmosphere, may have been dramatically different.
If one were to believe the Bible, the earth was surrounded by a layer of water vapor between Creation and the Flood. If this water vapor did exist in the past, then it would have effectively shielded the atmosphere from much of the cosmic radiation. This shielding would have drastically reduced the amount of Carbon produced. In high school biology courses they often teach about the inevitable failures of closed systems by taking an aquarium and placing snails, plants and a bowl of water inside; then sealing the aquarium so that no air may get in or out.
The idea is that snails produce carbon dioxide which is utilized by the plants, the plants produce oxygen which utilized by the snails.
In theory the cycle will continue indefinitely. In like manner, there is really no such thing as a closed system in nature. In nature, all systems are open regardless of what evolutionists say in protest. Even a sealed aquarium has sunlight, X-rays, Gamma Rays, ultra-violet light, etc.
Thus, this assumption is false. Sixth, there are differences in the Phenotype and Genotype of plants and animals which can cause significant variation in the amount of C found in the body of a specific organism. As no two people have exactly the same DNA, individual plants and animals vary in their physical and genetic makeup. These variations cause individual organisms to absorb or reject Carbon at different rates.
Seventh, the amount of Carbon in the atmosphere is increasing significantly at this time. A substantial body of scientific research exists to show that Carbon is not in a state of equilibrium; rather the production rate is significantly higher than the decay rate.
This fact drives us to two highly significant points. First, the earth must be young, less thanyears old and perfectly in accord with it being only 6, years old. Carbon decays to a zero amount insupposed years after its production. It is incapable of yielding dates in the millions of years. Therefore, it is labeled a short term radiometric dating technique. This is not the end, but merely the start of a long list of things that demonstrate the total uselessness of the Carbon method.
What are the other considerations that must be factored into the Carbon method and which demonstrate that it is useless? Wood and stone from one structure may have been moved and reused in a later structure in a higher stratum. This was a common practice in the ancient world. As one nation conquered another nation; the stone, wood and precious metals of one culture would be acquired and used by the next.
The architecture of the dome was stolen from the Christian Church of the Holy Sepulchre and marble columns were removed from previously built Byzantine churches to construct the building. Thus the published dates often fail to show the true range of dates obtained and this obscures the failings of the Carbon method.
Carbon years differ from calendar years because they are dependent on varying amounts of Carbon in the atmosphere.
Tree-ring dendrochronology is used to supposedly convert Carbon to calendar years. The curves are, however, constantly being revised and different calibration curves are used which yields widely different results depending upon the choices made by the researcher.
Regardless of whether the method works or not, there is going to be a range of dates and not a specific date. Thus, the older a sample is the wider the uncertainty of the date. For dates that supposedly go back to ancient Egypt, these ranges might reach plus or minus years for a period supposedly only 3, years ago. We have written records that are better than that. Different statistical models are used by different researchers.
Using different statistical models for interpretation of the same data will produce different results.
Carbon - Wikipedia
Just as different researchers use different calibration choices, they also use different statistical models. These choices serve to further complicate the various dating methods. This is common practice. All people start from their preconceived biases and prejustices. The fact is that for evolutionists science is no longer a search for truth; it is a search for the next grant.
As stone and wood are being re-used from previous buildings to construct new buildings, the carbon in the wood will be elevated in the strata. This will cause a false Carbon date to be assigned to the higher strata. This process might occur more than once for a specific piece of wood. If wood from an old barn is used as an architectural decoration in another building; it might then be moved again to a third structure.
Animals and plants that died in The Flood of Noah would have lower initial Carbon content than would be found in animals and plants today. The water vapor canopy that existed from Creation to The Flood would have inhibited Carbon production in the atmosphere. This would have reduced the amount of Carbon incorporated into the bodies of plants and animals prior to The Flood and the effect would be that the remains from prior to The Flood would appear to be much older than they really were.
There would be a lower Carbon content in the atmosphere before The Flood because of a larger biomass exchanging gases with the atmosphere.
This biomass was larger than all the vegetation on earth today.
There may have been less Carbon before The Flood of Noah because of the existence of the stronger magnetic field. This would have prevented some or much of the cosmic ray bombardment of the upper atmosphere, the cause of Carbon generation. No one knows the exact amount of Carbon in the atmosphere at the time of creation.
It is reasonable to consider that there have been none. We have to take into consideration the effect of the bias of the person who interprets the data upon those dates which get published.
The bias of the evolutionist interpreter of the Carbon data is that they see a normalized curve pattern as more important than the actual apparent age.
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The Carbon dating method is known to have flaws which cause an uneven chronology. This attempt to calibrate Carbon utterly fails for two reasons. The amount of Carbon in the atmosphere has not reached a constant level! This is a critical piece of information in demonstrating the useless nature of the Carbon dating technique. Stansfield, Science of Evolution New York: The rate at which the unstable radioactive C isotope decays into the stable non-radioactive N isotope, The ratio of C to C found in a given specimen, And the ratio C to C found in the atmosphere at the time of the specimen's death.
Carbon Dating - The Controversy Carbon dating is controversial for a couple of reasons.
First of all, it's predicated upon a set of questionable assumptions. We have to assume, for example, that the rate of decay that is, a 5, year half-life has remained constant throughout the unobservable past.
However, there is strong evidence which suggests that radioactive decay may have been greatly accelerated in the unobservable past. We also know that the ratio decreased during the industrial revolution due to the dramatic increase of CO2 produced by factories. This man-made fluctuation wasn't a natural occurrence, but it demonstrates the fact that fluctuation is possible and that a period of natural upheaval upon the earth could greatly affect the ratio.
Volcanoes spew out CO2 which could just as effectively decrease the ratio. Specimens which lived and died during a period of intense volcanism would appear older than they really are if they were dated using this technique. The ratio can further be affected by C production rates in the atmosphere, which in turn is affected by the amount of cosmic rays penetrating the earth's atmosphere.
The amount of cosmic rays penetrating the earth's atmosphere is itself affected by things like the earth's magnetic field which deflects cosmic rays. Precise measurements taken over the last years have shown a steady decay in the strength of the earth's magnetic field.
This means there's been a steady increase in radiocarbon production which would increase the ratio. And finally, this dating scheme is controversial because the dates derived are often wildly inconsistent. Walt Brown, In the Beginning,p. Godthe Father, sent His only Son to satisfy that judgment for those who believe in Him.
Jesusthe creator and eternal Son of God, who lived a sinless life, loves us so much that He died for our sins, taking the punishment that we deserve, was buriedand rose from the dead according to the Bible. If you truly believe and trust this in your heart, receiving Jesus alone as your Saviordeclaring, " Jesus is Lord ," you will be saved from judgment and spend eternity with God in heaven.Secular Equilibrium in Radioactive Decay Chains -- Part 1