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A widely reported but not universal finding is a greater male tendency toward Here the authors present a meta-analysis of k = studies, lateralization ( Khedr, Hamed, Said, & Basahi, ; Kimura &. Harshman . It has been pro- . searched the online database PsycINFO using the terms handed-. Starting a scornfully yesterday svelte adobe can be as false as holding a law onto online dating has its pros and cons meta analysis says softball · a zongorista. Is online dating versus meeting someone offline best to find the As each person's relationship goals may differ from their best friends or.
A final possibility is that a sex difference in handedness may be related to a differential exposure to birth stress. It has been pro- posed by a number of theorists e. A problem with such an explanation, however, is that a number of studies have failed to demonstrate a major relation overall between handedness and birth stress e. Sex Differences and the Assessment of Handedness There are a number of other factors that, though known to influence the observed incidence of handedness, have not been previously studied in relation to sex differences but that may, nonetheless, be of importance.
The way in which handedness is assessed is among the most prominent of these factors Bishop, Assessment methods can be largely grouped into hand preference inventories and hand proficiency measures; the former assess which hand is preferred over the other for a number of everyday activities e.
These two types of assessment are correlated, though only imperfectly so Bishop, Writing hand has frequently been used as criterion, and it has been noted by Perelle and Ehrman that self-classification of handedness also usually devolves to writing hand.
The proportion of individuals allocated to each handedness group may further vary depending upon the questionnaire length, the content of the questionnaire, and the nature of the response permitted to each item M. Bryden, ; Gureje, ; Holder, ; Peters, In addition, the incidence of handedness depends upon the choice of handedness categories used: These may either be discrete, usually right and left, with writing hand as the criterion e.
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Until now, it has been unclear whether the manifestation of a sex difference in handedness is sensitive to the presence of one or more of these assessment characteristics. Similarly, there is evidence that factors pertaining to the char- acteristics of the populations under study may account for system- atic variation in handedness, but the possible impact upon sex differences has been relatively neglected.
A number of special populations e. The age of participants has also been shown to influence the overall distribution of handedness. Variation in social pressures may also be responsible for subtle secular changes in handedness distributions. For example, McManus and Bryden divided studies into three groups on the basis of their year of publication, and found that the incidence of left-handed offspring among the children of two left-handed parents was almost twice as high in the earliest group as it was in the latest group.
Scope of Studies It is apparent from the foregoing that a wide range of work bears on the issues of whether there is a reliable difference between the sexes in the distribution of handedness and, if so, what is the overall magnitude of the difference, and what systematic influ- ences upon it, if any, can be detected.
In terms of the general area, McManus estimated that about 5, articles had been published on lateralization by ; updating the survey, McMa- nus reported that between and6, articles were cited in Psychological Abstracts under the headings of cere- bral dominance,handedness, and lateral dominance, with 1, being cited under the heading of handedness alone.
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We entered the same search terms in PsycINFO, and we found that for the period between and8, articles were cited under the search term of cerebral dominance OR handedness OR lateral domi- nanceand 2, were cited when handedness alone was used as a subject heading.
This high rate of growth in the literature makes it increasingly difficult to have a clear picture of the research field. A conventional literature review could not, therefore, hope to handle such an abundance of data. A meta-analysis, on the other hand, allows the results of a large collection of studies to be analyzed statistically in an integrated manner Glass, Methodological Complexity SCEDs undeniably present researchers with a complex array of methodological and research design challenges, such as establishing a representative baseline, managing the nonindependence of sequential observations i.
In the field of intervention research for example, Hser et al. Advances in longitudinal person-based trajectory analysis e. Application of the SCED has also expanded.
Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards
Research in nearly all subfields of psychology has begun to use daily diary and ecological momentary assessment EMA methods in the context of the SCED, opening the door to understanding increasingly complex psychological phenomena see Bolger et al. In contrast to the carefully controlled laboratory experiment that dominated research in the first half of the twentieth century e.
Recent advancements and expanded application of SCEDs indicate a need for updated design and reporting standards. This Review Many current benchmarks in the literature concerning key parameters of the SCED were established well before current advancements and innovations, such as the suggested minimum number of data points in the baseline phase swhich remains a disputed area of SCED research e.
This article comprises a an examination of contemporary SCED methodological and reporting standards; b a systematic review of select design, measurement, and statistical characteristics of published SCED research during the past decade; and c a broad discussion of the critical aspects of this research to inform methodological improvements and study reporting standards. The reader will garner a fundamental understanding of what constitutes appropriate methodological soundness in single-case experimental research according to the established standards in the field, which can be used to guide the design of future studies, improve the presentation of publishable empirical findings, and inform the peer-review process.
The discussion begins with the basic characteristics of the SCED, including an introduction to time-series, daily diary, and EMA strategies, and describes how current reporting and design standards apply to each of these areas of single-case research.
Interweaved within this presentation are the results of a systematic review of SCED research published between and in peer-reviewed outlets and a discussion of the way in which these findings support, or differ from, existing design and reporting standards and published SCED benchmarks.
Factions still exist within the larger field of psychology, as can be seen in the collection of standards presented in this article, particularly in regard to data analytic methods of SCEDs, but fortunately there is budding agreement about certain design and measurement characteristics.
A number of task forces, professional groups, and independent experts in the field have recently put forth guidelines; each has a relatively distinct purpose, which likely accounts for some of the discrepancies between them.
In what is to be a central theme of this article, researchers are ultimately responsible for thoughtfully and synergistically combining research design, measurement, and analysis aspects of a study.
This review presents the more prominent, comprehensive, and recently established SCED standards. Six sources are discussed: Although the specific purposes of each source differ somewhat, the overall aim is to provide researchers and reviewers with agreed-upon criteria to be used in the conduct and evaluation of SCED research.
The Tate et al. The design, measurement, and analysis standards are presented in the later sections of this article and notable concurrences, discrepancies, strengths, and deficiencies are summarized. Systematic Review Search Procedures and Selection Criteria Search strategy A comprehensive search strategy of SCEDs was performed to identify studies published in peer-reviewed journals meeting a priori search and inclusion criteria.
The search was limited to studies published in the English language and those appearing in peer-reviewed journals within the specified publication year range. Study selection The author used a three-phase study selection, screening, and coding procedure to select the highest number of applicable studies. Phase 1 consisted of the initial systematic review conducted using PsycINFO, which resulted in articles.
In Phase 2, titles and abstracts were screened: Articles appearing to use a SCED were retained for Phase 3, in which the author and a trained research assistant read each full-text article and entered the characteristics of interest into a database. At each phase of the screening process, studies that did not use a SCED or that either self-identified as, or were determined to be, quasi-experimental were dropped.
Of the original studies, 82 studies were determined to be quasi-experimental. The definition of a quasi-experimental design used in the screening procedure conforms to the descriptions provided by Kazdin and Shadish et al. For example, reversal designs require a minimum of four phases e.