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We acknowledge, however, the importance and often untapped potential of more open access to science data and corporate data.
Those other data sources, as well as crowdsourced data collection are also often mashed up with open government data, supplementing official public datasets to create new insights, opportunities, and impacts as a result.
In what follows, we deconstruct the main reasons why open government data matters to developing economies. The literature on open data reflects considerable enthusiasm about the potential for open government data in development.
On the other hand, we also find grounds for caution; the impacts of many of the projects we examined remain largely aspirational or speculative, and some cases even led to harms or potential harms. We live in an era of big data.
Every day, an unprecedented amount of information is being generated by an ever-increasing diversity of devices and appliances. Today, a growing consensus exists that this data, if applied correctly, and with attention to the attendant risks, can help spur positive social change.
The Unique Features of Open Data Based on our examination of the narratives and evidence provided in the existing literature, six distinguishing features seem to be credited to open data. Although these characteristics are unique to open data, in many cases, they would not be possible without a broader data, technology, and innovation ecosystem.
With the understanding in mind that open data must exist in a strong ecosystem, the six distinguishing features that are most quoted with regard to open data in a development context include: Scrutiny Because open data is subject to greater scrutiny and exposure than inaccessible institutional data, there is potential for enhanced review and improvement of government data quality e.
This can result in more useful data — again, a benefit that is relevant in less developed countries and societies, where data is scarce, and of limited quality and usefulness. This is a key intended benefit in all countries, but particularly salient in many developing economies that struggle with large socio-economic and digital divides.
Flexibility Open data is open with regard not only to the information it contains, but also to its format. This means that, when released in a usable manner, open data can be easier to repurpose and combine with other pieces of information than data institutions fail to make accessible, which in turn means that it is more flexible, with secondary uses that are likely to yield innovative insights. Creating such technical capacity can, however, lead to opportunity costs and require significant upfront resource allocation on the supply side, potentially slowing progress at the outset.
Participation By facilitating citizen participation and mobilization, open data can allow a wider range of expertise and knowledge to address and potentially solve complex problems. It can offer a more participatory way of solving complex public dilemmas, with pathways toward more easily tapping into previously inaccessible knowledge e.
Value Amplifier Finally, it is now widely recognized that data is a new kind of asset or knowledge is a form of wealth. The opening of government datasets in a flexible and equitable manner can amplify the value of data thanks to data filling important data gaps felt in society.
Though this attribute is important across the world, it may have a particularly important role to play in developing economies. These narratives surrounding the open data movement reflect those associated with the cross-sector paradigm shift from closed processes to open ones, and how it applies to governance and development.
Software, for example, is increasingly developed in an open source manner. With the rise of the collaborative coding platform GitHub, a notable driver, 16 the open source movement, similar to open data, is seen to be providing for more equal and flexible ways to create and access code — resulting in distributed coders, not just tech company employees, creating and improving exciting new products.
Similarly, businesses and governments alike are embracing open innovation techniques, posing opportunities to the crowd to provide input on important challenges and absorbing the best ideas — providing for enhanced participation and scrutiny, other features of open data.
Definitions focus to varying degrees on the key elements of transparency, citizen participation, and collaboration, among others, depending on the context. Increasing the availability of information about governmental activities; Supporting civic participation; Implementing the highest standards of professional integrity through: Increasing access to new technologies for openness and accountability, information sharing, public participation, and collaboration.
The power of human cooperation Sharing ideas and knowledge The ability to reuse, revise and repurpose content Increasing transparency of processes Expanding participation Collaborative production Based on the examination of these strands of openness in development efforts from the World Bank, ONE, African Development Bank, and others, the IDRC authors conclude that the central idea behind open development is: Disparities among those who collect and have access to data or have the capacity to make sense of the data can reinforce existing imbalances in power or influence.
This is especially true in a developing economies context where the number of data holders and data scientists is more concentrated, and this smaller group is disproportionately empowered to make meaningful use of data.
Within that context, opening datasets is often characterized as a force for democratization — engaging private and civil society actors, and, often indirectly as a result of intermediation, citizens themselves in analyzing and using data. On the other hand, each stage of the data life cycle contains risks.
Risks are often the result of technological weaknesses e. Although there are common elements across these risks, it is useful to examine them by separately considering each stage of the data value cycle.
When risks are not addressed at the initial stages of the value cycle e. As such, to prevent harm, there may be a legitimate case — especially when there is a clear understanding of the purpose of the use and user — to share certain government datasets with those targeted audiences in a more protected manner to generate necessary insights while limiting the risks.
We examine the risks introduced by open data efforts in developing economies in more detail in Part II. How can the impact of open data on developing economies be captured and evidence be developed? Many studies of open data are concerned with proving a case — either that open data can spur rapid social transformation the positive caseor that it has a negligible or harmful effect the negative case. In truth, the evidence is mixed and emergent; the impact of open data is, in fact, far more ambiguous.
Rather than just asking Does open data spur development? Theories of change are important.
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A review of the literature shows that numerous pathways and theories of change have in fact been proposed. For example, Martin Hilbert draws attention to the potential of opening geospatial- education- and housing-related information. Based on a review of pieces of literature related to Big and Open Data, he concludes — with caveats we discuss further below — that open data does in fact contain true opportunities for development.
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